Une morale sans dieu

La religion est-elle indispensable au sens moral ? Nombreux sont ceux qui considèrent qu'il est scandaleux, voire blasphématoire, de nier l'origine divine de la moralité. Soit un être divin a façonné notre sens moral, soit nous en avons hérité grâce aux enseignements d'une religion organisée. Dans les deux cas, la religion nous est nécessaire pour contenir les vices de la nature. Pour paraphraser Katherine Hepburn dans le film African Queen, en nous donnant une boussole morale la religion nous permet de nous hisser au-dessus de cette vilaine vieille Mère nature.

Pourtant la notion que le sens moral nous vient de Dieu soulève de nombreux problèmes. L'un d'entre eux est que nous ne pouvons pas, sans sombrer dans la tautologie, affirmer simultanément que Dieu est bon et qu'il nous a donné le sens du bien et du mal. Car alors nous sommes simplement en train de dire que Dieu répond à ses propres critères.

Un deuxième problème est qu'il n'existe pas de principe moral qui soit partagé par tous les peuples religieux, sans considération de leurs croyances spécifiques, mais pas par les agnostiques ou les athées. En effet, les athées et les agnostiques ne se conduisent pas moins moralement que les croyants, même si leurs bonnes actions reposent sur des principes différents. Les non-croyants possèdent souvent un sens du bien et du mal aussi solide que les autres, ils ont lutté pour l'abolition de l'esclavage et contribué à d'autres mouvements visant à soulager la souffrance humaine.

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