无神的道德

宗教对道德而言是必要的吗?许多人认为,否定道德的神源是无法容忍、甚至是亵渎神灵的。要么某些神灵创造了我们的道德感,要么我们从有组织的宗教教诲那里得到了道德感。无论哪种方式,我们都需要宗教来约束天性的邪恶。正如Katherine Hepburn在电影“非洲皇后”中所说的那样,宗教让我们摆脱邪恶的自然天性,给了我们道德指南针。

但是,道德来自上帝的观点有重重问题。一个问题是,我们无法在不陷入同义反复的情况下同时说上帝是好的,而且上帝给了我们善恶感。因为这样,我们就是在说上帝符合上帝的标准。

第二个问题是,除了不可知论者和无神论者认同的道德准则之外,并不存在所有信神的人都认同的道德准则,而无论他们具体信仰。事实上,无神论者和不可知论者行为做事的道德水准并不比宗教信仰者要低,即使他们的善举建立在不同原则的基础之上。不信仰者经常与任何人一样具有同样强烈和坚实的善恶感,而且还致力于废除奴隶制度并为其他减轻人类痛苦的事业贡献力量。

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