La mundialización de la OTAN

PRINCETON – La semana próxima, los 28 miembros de la OTAN se reunirán en Chicago para celebrar su cumbre anual. Sesenta y dos años después de que se firmara el Tratado del Atlántico Norte, que obligaba a los Estados Unidos, al Canadá y a diez Estados europeos a considerar un ataque a todos el que afectara a uno de ellos, la OTAN está transformándose en una organización mundial de seguridad del siglo XXI. El resultado será un mundo más seguro.

En 1949, el mundo estaba dividiéndose rápidamente en dos bloques político-militares principales, el Este y el Oeste, junto a un gran “movimiento de países no alienados”. La OTAN hizo frente al Pacto de Varsovia, creado por la Unión Soviética y sus aliados en 1955. Dentro de los dos bloques, unas potencias pequeñas estaban apiñadas en torno a la superpotencia. En ninguno de los dos bloques existía flexibilidad para que grupos más pequeños de miembros se beneficiaran de los medios de la alianza.

Actualmente, la OTAN se está volviendo, como ha dicho su Secretario General, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, “el centro de una red de asociaciones de seguridad y un centro de consulta sobre asuntos de seguridad mundial”. Es una “institución mundialmente conectada”, con más de 40 países asociados  y cada vez mayores vínculos con otras organizaciones internacionales.

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