Globaliser l’OTAN

PRINCETON – La semaine prochaine, les 28 membres de l’OTAN se réuniront à Chicago pour leur sommet annuel. Soixante-deux ans après la signature du Traité de l’Atlantique Nord qui engageait les Etats-Unis, le Canada et dix pays européens à considérer que le principe d’une attaque contre l’un constitue une attaque contre tous, l’OTAN se mue en une organisation globale du vingt-et-unième siècle. Il s’ensuit que le monde sera plus sûr.

En 1949, le monde se divisait rapidement en deux principaux blocs politico-militaires, l’Est et l’Ouest, coexistants avec un important « mouvement des non-alignés. » L’OTAN s’opposait alors au Pacte de Varsovie, créé par l’Union Soviétique et ses alliés en 1955. Des puissances plus petites se sont agrégées à la super puissance à l’intérieur de chaque bloc mais aucune flexibilité au sein de ces deux blocs ne permettait à des groupements de membres plus petits de déployer leurs moyens d’alliance.

Aujourd’hui, l’OTAN devient, dans les propres mots de son Secrétaire général Anders Fogh Rasmussen, « le centre d’un réseau de partenariats de sécurité et un centre de consultation sur les questions de sécurité globale. » C’est une « institution connectée globalement, » avec plus de 40 pays individuels partenaires et des liens croissants avec d’autres organisations internationales.

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