El asesino de la globalización

La primera ola de globalización económica del mundo, liderada por el Imperio Británico en el siglo XIX, llegó a su fin literalmente con una detonación en una tarde de domingo de 1914, cuando Gavrilo Princip asesinó (con dos balas misteriosamente bien apuntadas) al archiduque de Austria Francisco Fernando y su esposa. Los años que siguieron fueron testigos de una carnicería paneuropea, de inestabilidad en toda la década de 1920 y del surgimiento del fascismo y el comunismo, culminando en la muerte de innumerables millones de personas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

¿La era de la globalización de hoy está llegando a su fin? Si es así, tal vez no necesariamente termine con una repetición de las masacres del siglo pasado, sino con una reducción de la economía que conlleve estancamiento económico y predestine a miles de millones de personas a una pobreza extrema.

Varios candidatos fueron propuestos para el papel del asesino de la globalización. Pero un aspirante poco perceptible, aunque probable, se ha venido infiltrando en la economía mundial: la creciente tendencia a limitar la libre circulación de la gente, a “atrincherar” al mundo rico. Hoy en día constantemente vemos la amenaza de esta tendencia, pero la percibimos como si aparentemente no fuera amenazadora, a punto tal que quizá nos terminemos acostumbrando a ella en lugar de detenerla.

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