L’ennemi mortel de la mondialisation

La première vague de mondialisation économique, conduite par l’Empire britannique au dix‑neuvième siècle, s’est terminée brutalement un dimanche après-midi de 1914, lorsque Gavrilo Princip tua (de deux balles étrangement bien placées) l’Archiduc d’Autriche, Franz Ferdinand, et sa femme. La période qui suivit fut témoin du carnage paneuropéen, de l’instabilité des années 20, de la montée du fascisme et du communisme, et se conclut par les millions et les millions de morts de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Notre époque de mondialisation est-elle également en bout de course ? Si tel est le cas, sa fin ne sera pas nécessairement marquée par les mêmes massacres que ceux du siècle dernier, mais par une austérité économique qui entraînera une stagnation et vouera des milliards de personnes à une misère noire.

Différents candidats ont été proposés pour endosser le rôle de l’ennemi mortel de la mondialisation. L’un des prétendants sérieux, quoique peu remarqué, guette sournoisement l’économie mondiale : il s’agit du penchant consistant à limiter la libre circulation des personnes, à « enceindre » le monde des riches. Cette menace plane en permanence de nos jours et est perçue d’une manière si inoffensive qu’au lieu de l’arrêter, nous pourrions bien nous y habituer.

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