anti-globalization Jean Philippe Ksiazek/Getty Images

Las líneas políticas divisorias de la globalización

NUEVA YORK – La votación del Reino Unido a favor de salir, aunque por un margen muy estrecho, de la Unión Europea aconteció debido a razones específicamente británicas. Y, no obstante, también es como el proverbial canario en la mina de carbón, envía señales sobre una amplia reacción populista/nacionalista – al menos en las economías avanzadas – en contra de la globalización, el libre comercio, la deslocalización, la migración laboral, las políticas orientadas al mercado, las autoridades supranacionales, e incluso en contra del cambio tecnológico.

Todas estas tendencias reducen los salarios y el empleo de los trabajadores con bajas cualificaciones en las economías avanzadas, que son economías que tienen escasez de mano de obra y son ricas en capital, y los incrementan en las economías emergentes que tienen abundancia de mano de obra. Los consumidores en las economías avanzadas se benefician de la reducción de los precios de los productos objeto de comercio; pero, los trabajadores con bajas e incluso medianas cualificaciones pierden ingresos ya que sus salarios de equilibrio caen y sus puestos de trabajo se ven amenazados.

En la votación “Brexit”, las líneas divisorias estuvieron claras: ricos frente a pobres, ganadores frente a perdedores del comercio y la globalización, cualificados frente a no cualificados, personas con un alto nivel de educación formal frente a personas con un menor nivel de educación formal, jóvenes frente a personas maduras, lo urbano frente a lo rural, y comunidades diversas frente a comunidades más homogéneas. Las mismas líneas divisorias están apareciendo en otras economías avanzadas, incluyendo en las de Estados Unidos y la Europa continental.

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