anti-globalization Jean Philippe Ksiazek/Getty Images

Die politischen Verwerfungslinien der Globalisierung

NEW YORK – Das knappe Abstimmungsergebnis in Großbritannien für einen Austritt aus der Europäischen Union hatte spezifisch britische Gründe. Und trotzdem erinnert es an den sprichwörtlichen Kanarienvogel im Kohlebergwerk, indem es, zumindest in den Industriestaaten, einen grundlegenden populistisch-nationalistischen Rückschlag signalisiert – gegen Globalisierung, Freihandel, Auslagerung von Arbeitsplätzen, Gastarbeiter, marktorientierte Politik, supranationale Autoritäten und sogar technologischen Wandel.

All diese Trends führen in den Industrieländern, wo die Arbeit knapp und Kapital im Überfluss vorhanden ist, dazu, dass Löhne und Arbeitsplätze für gering qualifizierte Arbeitnehmer zurückgehen – im Gegensatz zu den arbeitsintensiveren Entwicklungsländern, wo diese zunehmen. Die Konsumenten der Industriestaaten profitieren vom Rückgang der Preise für Handelsgüter, aber Arbeitnehmer mit geringen oder sogar mittleren Fähigkeiten verlieren im Zuge sinkender Gleichgewichtslöhne und bedrohter Arbeitsplätze an Einkommen.

Bei der „Brexit“-Abstimmung waren die Verwerfungslinien klar ersichtlich: reich gegen arm, Handels- und Globalisierungsprofiteure gegen -verlierer, qualifiziert gegen ungelernt, gut gegen schlecht ausgebildet, jung gegen alt, städtisch gegen ländlich und diversifizierte gegen homogenere Gemeinschaften. Dieselben Verwerfungslinien treten auch in anderen Industriestaaten wie den Vereinigten Staaten oder den Ländern Kontinentaleuropas auf.

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