anti-globalization Jean Philippe Ksiazek/Getty Images

全球化的政治断层

发自纽约——英国民众以微弱多数投票脱离欧盟的举动虽然是英国人自己的事。然而大家也都知道,这就如同煤矿里的那只金丝雀(注:用来提早预警瓦斯泄露,比喻出现坏事的最初征兆),预示了大规模民粹主义/民族主义对全球化、自由贸易、业务外包、劳动力流动、市场导向政策、超国家机构,甚至是技术变革的反向冲击——至少在发达经济体就是如此。

上述这些趋势令低技能工人的工资和就业在劳动力短缺但资本充足的发达经济体和劳动力充裕的新兴经济体中此消彼长。发达经济体的消费者从商品价格下降中受益;但低端甚至一些中等技术工人则因为均衡工资下降且工作机会受威胁而减少了收入。

在“脱欧”投票中也展现出了明显的断层:富人/穷人,贸易及全球化的赢家/输家,高技能/低技能劳动者,受过良好教育/低教育程度,年轻人/老年人,城市/农村,多样性/单一型社区。而在其他发达经济体,包括美国和欧洲大陆,都出现了类似的断层。

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