Trump supporters Scott Olson | Getty Images

Démystifier les récits populistes de l'Amérique

BERKELEY – Nul besoin d'avoir l'ouïe particulièrement fine pour déchiffrer les discours cryptés prononcés durant la campagne électorale de cette année aux États-Unis. Tendez l'oreille ne serait-ce qu'un court instant et vous comprendrez que les Mexicains et les Chinois collaborent avec Wall Street pour conclure des accords commerciaux à la gomme pour voler leurs emplois légitimes à des Américains et que les Musulmans veulent faire sauter le monde entier.

Tous ces propos alarmistes sont bien plus effrayants que la traditionnelle foire électorale. Cela est effrayant pour les citoyens à l'étranger, qui ne peuvent qu'en conclure que les électeurs de la seule superpuissance mondiale sont dangereusement déséquilibrés. Et cela est effrayant pour les Américains, qui jusqu'à il y a peu croyaient, ou peut-être espéraient, vivre dans une République fondée sur les traditions établies par George Washington, Abraham Lincoln et Teddy et Franklin Roosevelt.

Mais ce qui est encore plus troublant, c'est la réalité politique que reflète cette rhétorique. Il n'y a aucune comparaison possible entre la critique axée sur la politique du néolibéralisme, par le candidat démocrate Bernie Sanders, et les fanfaronnades incohérentes de Donald Trump ou de Ted Cruz dans le camp républicain. Et pourtant, à droite comme à gauche, un récit commun fait son apparition, qui cherche à expliquer pourquoi les revenus du travail et de la classe moyenne américaine ont stagné au cours de la dernière génération.

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