Hannelore Foerster/Stringer/Getty Images

Quand la mondialisation consomme ses jeunes

PRINCETON – Les preuves que la mondialisation est en recul continuent à s’accumuler: les flux commerciaux et de capitaux internationaux sont au ralenti et la migration est de plus en plus restreinte. Ces tendances ont commencé suite à la crise financière de 2008, de sorte qu'elles ne peuvent pas être expliquées par une nouvelle réaction populiste contre la mondialisation. Au contraire, elles puisent leur source dans l'échec des autorités nationales à prendre la logique de la mondialisation au sérieux.

Dans une année où le Royaume-Uni a voté pour « Brexiter » de l'Union européenne, et les républicains aux États-Unis ont choisi Donald Trump comme candidat à la présidentielle, le populisme anti-mondialisation semble effectivement omniprésente. Pourtant, bien qu'il soit tentant de voir le populisme comme une des causes des difficultés économiques mondiales, le mouvement, en fait, n’a eu que peu de succès politiques jusqu'à présent.

Après tout, l'économie mondiale ne fait pas du sur-place parce que la Pologne et la Hongrie ont des gouvernements populistes d'extrême droite qui se sont engagés à réaffirmer la souveraineté nationale. Le populisme de gauche, pour sa part, a encore moins de raisons de se vanter: Fidel Castro est en train de disparaître à Cuba; l'Argentine se remet lentement d'une gestion catastrophique sous les présidences de Néstor Kirchner et Cristina Fernández de Kirchner; et l'économie du Venezuela a implosé sous la présidence de Nicolás Maduro.

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