La globalización sigue su marcha

LONDRES – En un reciente simposio en el Financial Times sobre las perspectivas de la globalización en 2011, el columnista Gideon Rachman observó que “cuando Barack Obama visitó recientemente la India, el presidente estadounidense advirtió a sus anfitriones que el debate sobre la globalización se reabrió en Occidente” y “se está formando… y creciendo en las economías avanzadas… una reacción negativa”.

Pero el alarmismo de Rachman es infundado. El miedo a la globalización en Occidente no es nada nuevo. Intelectuales articulados y grupos como sindicatos y organizaciones ambientales en las economías avanzadas han manifestado temores y sentimientos anti-globalización durante por lo menos un cuarto de siglo.

El miedo a la globalización, sin embargo, comenzó históricamente en el Este, no en Occidente. Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Occidente desmanteló las barreras comerciales y de flujos de inversión, y trabajó para eliminar los controles de cambio y avanzar hacia la convertibilidad monetaria. Lo que a veces se llamó el orden económico internacional liberal era el orden del día, y también fue abrazado por la opinión pública.

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