Vormarsch der Globalisierung

LONDON: Bei einem Symposium in der Financial Times zu den Aussichten der Globalisierung in 2011 bemerkte kürzlich der Kolumnist Gideon Rachman: „Als Barack Obama jüngst Indien besuchte, warnte der US-Präsident seine Gastgeber, dass die Debatte über die Globalisierung im Westen neu eröffnet sei“ und dass sich „in den hoch entwickelten Volkswirtschaften ... eine wachsende Gegenbewegung ... herausbilde“.

Doch Rachmans Schwarzseherei ist fehl am Platz. Die Furcht im Westen vor der Globalisierung ist nichts Neues. Ausdrucksgewandte Intellektuelle, aber auch Gruppen wie Gewerkschaften und Umweltschutzorganisationen geben in den hoch entwickelten Volkswirtschaften seit mindestens einem Vierteljahrhundert globalisierungsfeindlichen Ängsten und Stimmungen eine Stimme.

Historisch gesehen begann die Angst vor der Globalisierung freilich im Osten, nicht im Westen. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg baute der Westen Handelsschranken und Barrieren gegen Investitionsströme ab, bemühte sich, Devisenkontrollen zu beseitigen, und arbeitete auf eine Konvertibilität der Währungen hin. Auf der Tagesordnung stand, was manchmal als die „liberale Weltwirtschaftsordnung“ bezeichnet wurde, und auch die öffentliche Meinung nahm diese begeistert an.

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