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Repensar o princípio de Robin dos Bosques

MADRID —A ajuda internacional ao desenvolvimento baseia-se no princípio de Robin dos Bosques: tirar aos ricos para dar aos pobres. Com base neste princípio, as agências nacionais de desenvolvimento, as organizações multilaterais e as ONG transferem actualmente mais de 135 mil milhões de dólares por ano dos países ricos para países os pobres.

Um termo mais formal para o princípio Robin dos Bosques é «prioritarianismo cosmopolita", uma regra ética segundo a qual devemos considerar todas as pessoas de igual forma no mundo, independentemente do local onde se encontram, e então concentrar a ajuda onde os seus efeitos serão mais positivos. As pessoas que têm menos têm prioridade em relação às que têm mais. Este princípio orienta implícita ou explicitamente a ajuda ao desenvolvimento económico, à saúde e a situações de emergência humanitária.

À primeira vista, o prioritarianismo cosmopolita faz sentido. Nos países pobres as pessoas têm necessidades mais prementes e os níveis de preços são muito inferiores do que nos países ricos, pelo que o poder de compra de um determinado montante em euros ou em dólares é multiplicado por dois ou por três se for gasto num país pobre. Por outras palavras, gastar num país rico é não menos rentável, como também beneficia aqueles que já têm muito (pelo menos em comparação com os países pobres) e, por conseguinte, é menos útil.

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