homelessness NurPhoto/ Getty Images

Come riconsiderare Robin Hood

MADRID – Gli aiuti internazionali allo sviluppo si fondano sul principio di Robin Hood, ovvero prendere dai ricchi per dare ai poveri. Le agenzie per lo sviluppo nazionale, le organizzazioni multilaterali e le ONG trasferiscono al momento più di 135 miliardi di dollari all’anno dai paesi ricchi ai paesi poveri sulla base di questo principio.

Un termine più formale per indicare il principio di Robin Hod è “prioritarianismo cosmopolita”; una regola etica in base alla quale si dovrebbe pensare alle persone di tutto il mondo allo stesso modo indipendentemente da dove vivono, e focalizzare poi gli aiuti dove sono più necessari. Chi possiede meno ha quindi priorità su chi ha di più. Questa filosofia guida in modo implicito o esplicito gli aiuti allo sviluppo economico, gli aiuti per la salute e gli aiuti per le emergenze umanitarie.

A prima vista il prioritarianismo cosmopolita ha un senso. Le persone nei paesi poveri hanno delle necessità più urgenti ed il livello dei prezzi è molto più basso nei paesi poveri tanto che un dollaro o un euro hanno un impatto di due o persino tre volte superiore rispetto ai paesi ricchi. La spesa nazionale per i paesi ricchi non solo è più costosa, ma dà anche maggior beneficio a chi è già benestante (per lo meno in termini relativi secondo gli standard globali) e ha pertanto un effetto meno positivo.

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