homelessness NurPhoto/ Getty Images

Robin Hood neu gedacht

MADRID – Die internationale Entwicklungshilfe beruht auf dem Robin-Hood-Prinzip: von den Reichen nehmen und den Armen geben. Derartig motiviert transferieren nationale Entwicklungsbehörden, multilaterale Organisationen und Nichtregierungsorganisationen derzeit mehr als 135 Milliarden Dollar jährlich aus wohlhabenden Staaten in arme Länder.

Formeller wird das Robin-Hood-Prinzip als „kosmopolitischer Prioritarismus“ bezeichnet. Dabei handelt es sich um einen ethischen Grundsatz, wonach wir jeden Menschen auf der Welt, ungeachtet seines Wohnortes, die gleiche Beachtung schenken sollten, um uns dann auf die Frage zu konzentrieren, wo die Hilfe am wirksamsten eingesetzt werden kann. Wer weniger hat, genießt höhere Priorität als Menschen, die mehr haben. Hilfsmaßnahmen für wirtschaftliche Entwicklung, für Gesundheit und für humanitäre Notfälle sind implizit oder explizit von dieser Philosophie getragen. 

Auf den ersten Blick ergibt dieser kosmopolitische Prioritarismus durchaus Sinn. Die Bedürfnisse der Menschen in armen Ländern sind vordringlicher und das Preisniveau in armen Ländern ist weit niedriger, so dass man mit einem Dollar oder Euro dort zwei- bis dreimal mehr bewirken kann als daheim. Geld im eigenen Land auszugeben ist nicht nur kostspieliger, sondern kommt auch jenen zugute, denen es ohnehin gut geht (zumindest relativ gesehen, gemessen an weltweiten Standards), wodurch man damit weniger Gutes bewirkt.

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