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N'oublions pas les laissés pour compte à coté de chez nous !

MADRID – L'aide internationale est basée sur le principe de Robin des Bois : prendre aux riches pour donner aux pauvres. C'est sur ce principe que les organismes de coopération, les organisations multilatérales et les ONG transfèrent chaque année plus de 135 milliards de dollars des pays riches vers les pays pauvres.

De manière formelle ce principe s'appelle le "prioritarianisme cosmopolite" [théorisé par   Charles Beitz et John Rawls], une règle éthique selon laquelle nous devons considérer tout le monde de la même manière à travers la planète, quel que soit l'endroit où il se trouve, et aider là où cela apparaît le plus utile globalement. Ceux qui ont moins sont prioritaires par rapport à ceux qui ont plus. Cette principe guide implicitement ou explicitement l'aide au développement, à la santé et aux urgences humanitaires.

A première vue c'est logique. D'une part les pays pauvres ont des besoins urgents, d'autre part le prix des produits qui leur manquent est beaucoup plus bas que dans les pays riches. Le pouvoir d'achat d'une somme donnée en euro ou en dollar est multiplié par deux ou par trois s'il est dépensé dans un pays pauvre. Autrement dit, dépensée dans un pays riche, non seulement cette somme est moins rentable, mais elle bénéficie alors à ceux qui ont déjà beaucoup (au moins en comparaison des pays pauvres) et elle contribue donc moins à l'amélioration du bien-être global.

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