homelessness NurPhoto/ Getty Images

Nový pohled na Robina Hooda

MADRID – Mezinárodní rozvojová pomoc je založena na principu Robina Hooda: bohatým brát a chudým dávat. V souladu s touto myšlenkou národní rozvojové agentury, multilaterální organizace a nevládní organizace převádějí v současnosti více než 135 miliard dolarů ročně z bohatých zemí do chudých.

Formálněji lze princip Robina Hooda označit jako „kosmopolitní prioritarianismus“, tedy jako etické pravidlo, podle něhož bychom měli přemýšlet o všech lidech na světě stejně bez ohledu na to, kde žijí, a pak soustředit pomoc tam, kde bude nejúčinnější. Ti, kdo mají méně, přitom dostávají přednost před těmi, kdo mají více. Touto filozofií se implicitně nebo i explicitně řídí pomoc zaměřená na hospodářský rozvoj, pomoc zaměřená na zdraví i pomoc zaměřená na řešení humanitárních krizí.

Na první pohled dává kosmopolitní prioritarianismus smysl. Potřeby lidí v chudých zemích jsou naléhavější a cenová úroveň daleko nižší, takže za jeden dolar či euro tam lze vykonat dvakrát až třikrát více užitku než doma. Domácí výdaje jsou nejen dražší, ale navíc putují k těm, kdo už jsou na tom docela dobře (přinejmenším relativně, měřeno podle globálních standardů), takže vykonají méně dobrého.

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