La globalización después de la crisis

WASHINGTON, DC – La economía mundial acaba de pasar por una recesión profunda marcada por la turbulencia financiera, la destrucción en gran escala de la riqueza y caídas en la producción industrial y el comercio global. De acuerdo con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el continuo deterioro del mercado laboral en 2009 puede conducir a un incremento estimado del desempleo mundial de 39 a 61 millones de trabajadores con relación al 2007. Para fines de este año, las filas mundiales de desempleados pueden oscilar entre 219 y 241 millones –la cifra más alta de la que se tenga registro.

Mientras tanto, se espera que el crecimiento global de los salarios reales, que se desaceleró drásticamente en 2008, haya caído aún más en 2009, a pesar de las señales de una posible recuperación económica. En un muestreo de 53 países sobre los que existen datos disponibles, el crecimiento mediano de los salarios reales promedio había declinado de 4,3% en 2007 a 1,4% en 2008. El Banco Mundial advierte que otros 89 millones de personas pueden caer en la pobreza tras la crisis, que se sumarían a los alrededor de 1.400 millones de personas que en 2005 vivían por debajo de la línea internacional de la pobreza de 1,25 dólar por día.

En este clima, la globalización ha sido objeto de duras críticas, incluso de parte de líderes de países en desarrollo que se beneficiaron fuertemente con ella. El presidente Yoweri Museveni, a quien se le reconoce ampliamente el mérito de integrar a Uganda a los mercados mundiales, ha dicho que la globalización es “el mismo viejo orden con nuevos medios de control, nuevos medios de opresión, nuevos medios de marginación” por parte de los países ricos que buscan asegurarse el acceso a los mercados de los países en desarrollo.

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