Надежда на ресурсы

ВААШИНГТОН, ОКРУГ КОЛУМБИЯ – Когда страна в четыре раза повышает свои налоговые поступления, на это стоит обратить внимание. Именно таким является масштаб увеличения доходов, достигнутый Ганой с 2010 по 2011 годы благодаря поступлениям из добывающих отраслей промышленности.

И Гана не является единственным примером. Рост налоговых поступлений в богатых ресурсами развивающихся странах отражает не только рост цен на сырье, но и международные правила, которые укрепили финансовую прозрачность в нефтяной, горнодобывающей и газовой отраслях, значительно сократив возможности уклонения от уплаты налогов. Аналогичные правила фигурировали и в повестке дня недавнего Саммита Большой восьмерки, прошедшего в Северной Ирландии. Важно ценить эти усилия – и требовать большего.

Международные товарные рынки находятся в состоянии стресса. С 2000 года цены находились на восходящей траектории, и рост спроса лишь ненадолго прервался во время финансового кризиса 2008 года. Одним из очевидных последствий этого является крайняя неустойчивость цен. В это же время растет и желание уйти на нелегальные рынки: приблизительно 20 % мирового рынка колтана – драгоценного металла, используемого в мобильной связи – составляет незаконная торговля.

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