Die Ressource Hoffnung

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Wenn ein Land seine Steuereinnahmen innerhalb eines einzigen Jahres vervierfacht, ist es an der Zeit aufmerksam zu werden. Im Zeitraum von 2010 bis 2011 ist Ghana eine Erhöhung seines Steueraufkommens in dieser Größenordnung durch Einnahmen aus der Rohstoffwirtschaft gelungen.

Damit ist Ghana nicht allein. In den steigenden Steuereinnahmen rohstoffreicher Entwicklungsländer spiegeln sich nicht nur die höheren Rohstoffpreise wider, sondern auch internationale Vorschriften, die die finanzielle Transparenz in der Erdöl-, Erdgas- und Bergbauindustrie verbessert und die Möglichkeiten zur Steuerhinterziehung deutlich eingeschränkt haben. Derlei Vorschriften standen auch auf der Agenda des jüngsten G8-Gipfels in Nordirland weit oben. Es ist wichtig, diese Bemühungen zu würdigen – und weitere Anstrengungen zu fordern.

Die internationalen Rohstoffmärkte stehen unter Druck. Die Weltmarktpreise für Rohstoffe steigen seit 2000 kontinuierlich, wobei die ständig wachsende Nachfrage nur kurzzeitig durch die Finanzkrise 2008 unterbrochen wurde. Eine spürbare Folge ist die extreme Preisvolatilität. Gleichzeitig verstärken sich die Anreize, Zugang zu illegalen Märkten zu erlangen: Etwa 20% des auf dem Weltmarkt verkauften Coltan – ein Edelmetall, das in der Mobilkommunikation zum Einsatz kommt – wird illegal gehandelt.

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