L’espoir des ressources

WASHINGTON – Lorsqu’un pays quadruple ses revenus fiscaux en une seule année, il est temps de se pencher sur la question. C’est l’échelle de la hausse des revenus réalisée par le Ghana entre 2010 et 2011 grâce aux recettes issues de ses industries extractives.

Le cas du Ghana n’est pas unique. La hausse des recettes fiscales des pays en développement riches en ressources ne reflète pas seulement la hausse des prix des matières premières, mais aussi les règles internationales qui ont permis une meilleure transparence financière dans les industries du pétrole, du gaz et minières, limitant substantiellement les opportunités d’évasion fiscale. Ces règles étaient aussi en tête de l’ordre du jour du récent Sommet du G8 en Irlande du nord. Il est important de reconnaître ces efforts – et d’en exiger plus.

Les marchés internationaux de matières premières sont sous pression. Depuis 2000, les prix sont en hausse, avec un envol de la demande qui n’a été que brièvement interrompu par la crise financière de 2008. L’une des conséquences visibles est une extrême volatilité des prix. Dans le même temps, les incitations à traiter sur les marchés illégaux sont de plus en plus fortes : environ 20% du marché mondial du coltan – un métal précieux utilisé dans la communication mobile – sont traités de manière illégale.

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