Naděje přírodních zdrojů

WASHINGTON – Když země během jediného roku zvýší své daňové příjmy na čtyřnásobek, je načase zbystřit pozornost. Právě takového nárůstu výnosu z daní dosáhla Ghana v období 2010 až 2011, díky příjmům z tamních těžebních odvětví.

Ghana není jediná. Do zvyšujících se daňových příjmů rozvojových zemí bohatě obdařených přírodními zdroji se promítají nejen vyšší komoditní ceny, ale i mezinárodní pravidla, která zlepšila finanční transparentnost v ropných, plynařských a důlních odvětvích a výrazně omezila příležitosti ke krácení daní. Tato pravidla se také objevila na jednom z předních míst programu nedávného summitu G8 v Severním Irsku. Je důležité tyto snahy ocenit – a žádat ještě víc.

Mezinárodní komoditní trhy jsou pod tlakem. Od roku 2000 jsou ceny na stoupající trajektorii, přičemž finanční krize roku 2008 přerušila svižně rostoucí poptávku jen nakrátko. Jedním zřejmým důsledkem je mimořádná nestálost cen. Současně sílí pobídky ke vstupu na nelegální trhy: nezákonně se obchoduje se zhruba 20 % celosvětového trhu s koltanem, drahým kovem používaným v mobilních komunikacích.

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