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全球规则能否防止国家损害自身利益?

坎布里奇—美国总统唐纳德·特朗普将国家安全用于对钢铁进口征收关税的理由,他威胁上调汽车关税,最近还发誓要对墨西哥的进口产品实施关税征收。(举例来讲),“没有钢铁就没有国家,”特朗普宣称。尽管特朗普的国家安全主张表面看来十分荒谬,但却为更大范围的世界贸易体制和全球经济治理提出了难题。

确定国家政府可以随心所欲作为和必须接受国际协议监管的政策领域是全球治理的关键难题。在一个日益相互依存的世界经济中,某个国家几乎一切所作所为都会影响到其他国家的利益。

但上述溢出效应本身并不构成充分的理由来限制民族自治。公共教育、汽油税或高速公路限速等政策都会影响到贸易伙伴的利益。提升技能会改变某个国家的比较优势,从而影响其他国家的贸易机会。汽油税和限速会影响对石油的需求,从而影响世界市场石油价格。上述政策不受国际管控,对此实行国际监管将被普遍—而且恰当地—视为荒谬之举。

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