cyber warfare bae systems The Washington Post

Une approche normative pour la prévention de la guerre cybernétique

CAMBRIDGE – Une série d'épisodes au cours des dernières années, notamment les interventions de la Russie pour fausser les élections présidentielles de 2016 en faveur de Donald Trump, les cyber-attaques anonymes qui ont perturbé le réseau électrique de l'Ukraine en 2015 et le virus « Stuxnet » qui a détruit un millier de centrifugeuses iraniennes, suscite une inquiétude croissante au sujet des conflits dans le cyberespace. Lors de la Conférence de Munich sur la sécurité du mois dernier, le ministre des Affaires étrangères néerlandais Bert Koenders a annoncé la création d'une nouvelle ONG, la Commission mondiale sur la stabilité du cyberespace, pour compléter le travail du Groupe d'experts gouvernementaux (GEG) des Nations Unies.

Les rapports du GEG de 2010, 2013 et 2015 ont aidé à établir l'ordre du jour des négociations sur la cyber-sécurité. Le dernier rapport a identifié un ensemble de normes qui ont été approuvées par l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies. Mais en dépit de ce premier succès, le GEG a ses limites. Les participants sont techniquement des conseillers du Secrétaire Général de l'ONU plutôt que des négociateurs nationaux dotés de pouvoirs véritables. Bien que le nombre de participants ait augmenté des 15 membres de départ à 25, la plupart des pays n'ont pas voix au chapitre.

Mais une question plus vaste plane au-dessus du GGE : les normes peuvent-elle vraiment restreindre le comportement des États ?

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