construction site World Bank photo/Flickr

Un plan Marshall mondial

ROME – Malgré les efforts en cours visant à catalyser la coopération mondiale de développement, d'importants obstacles au progrès se sont interposés ces dernières années. Heureusement, à l'occasion des grandes réunions internationales prévues au second semestre de 2015, les dirigeants mondiaux ont une bonne chance de pouvoir les surmonter.

Un tel revirement s'est déjà produit auparavant. Au tournant du siècle, des négociations internationales sur le développement économique avaient été brusquement interrompues. La réunion ministérielle de Seattle de l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce s'était terminée sans aucune décision et après deux décennies de Consensus de Washington, les pays en développement se sentaient frustrés à l'encontre des institutions financières dirigées par les États-Unis. La conférence de négociations inaugurales pour le financement des Nations Unies pour le développement (FfD) à Monterrey au Mexique, semblait vouée à l'échec.

Puis le 11 septembre 2001, les États-Unis ont été frappés par de graves attaques terroristes : une évolution tragique qui a en quelque sorte catalysé les progrès. Les dirigeants du monde ont convenu d'entamer le cycle de Doha pour s'assurer que les négociations commerciales soient mises au service des aspirations de développement des pays en développement. Et la conférence Monterrey FfD de 2002 a produit des avancées majeures sur les investissements nationaux et à l'étranger, sur la dette extérieure, la coopération internationale, le commerce et les questions systémiques de gouvernance.

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