Stav globální chudoby

WASHINGTON, DC – Hospodářský zeměpis světa se mění. Eurozóna čelí strašákovi dalšího kola stagnace, Japonsko sklouzlo do recese a Spojené státy navzdory relativně silnému výkonu na sklonku roku vzbudily celosvětové obavy opuštěním politiky kvantitativního uvolňování. Rozvíjející se ekonomiky si zatím dál vedou dobře. Indie a Indonésie rostou tempem přes 5% ročně, Malajsie je na 6% a růst v Číně přesahuje 7%.

Rozsah globálních změn je patrný při zohlednění parity kupní síly – měřítka celkového objemu zboží a služeb, který si lze v dané zemi koupit za jeden dolar. Z údajů za rok 2011 zveřejněných počátkem letošního roku vyplývá, že Indie je dnes podle HDP v přepočtu podle parity kupní síly třetí největší světovou ekonomikou, před Německem a Japonskem. Stejná data také ukázala, že Čína podle parity kupní síly předstihla někdy v letošním roce USA v roli největší světové ekonomiky – podle našich odhadů došlo k této změně 10. října.

Navzdory tomuto pokroku zůstává vysoké procento lidí v rozvojových zemích zoufale chudé. Hranice chudoby je celosvětově definována jako denní příjem ve výši 1,25 dolaru v přepočtu podle parity kupní síly – řada lidí ovšem tuto hranici kritizuje jako nehorázně nízkou. Skutečně nehorázný je ovšem fakt, že téměř miliarda lidí – včetně více než 80% obyvatel Demokratické republiky Kongo, Madagaskaru, Libérie a Burundi – žije i pod touto hranicí.

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