全球贫困状态

华盛顿—世界经济地理正在改变。欧元区面临又一轮停滞;日本已经滑入衰退;美国今年下半年经济表现相对较为强劲,但其推出量化宽松的决定让全世界担心不已。与此同时,新兴经济体继续表现出众。印度和印度尼西亚年增长率超过5%;马来西亚达到6%,中国超过7%。

若将购买力平价(PPP)考虑在内,全球变化的规模更加可见一斑。根据今年早些时候发布的2011年数据,按经PPP调整的GDP衡量,印度目前已是世界第三大经济集体,超过了德国和日本。数据还表明中国将在今年某个时候超过美国成为PPP标准的世界第一大经济体——从我们的估计看,这个时候就在今年10月10日。

尽管取得了如此进步,但发展中国家的大量人口仍处于极端贫困。全球贫困线为日收入1.25美元(经PPP调整),这一标准被许多人批为低到令人震惊。但真正令人震惊的是有近十亿人——包括民主刚果、马达加斯加、利比里亚和布隆迪80%以上的人口——生活在这条线以下。

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