Paul Lachine

Desequilibrios globales y desigualdad interna

WASHINGTON, DC - A pesar de años de conversaciones oficiales sobre la necesidad de dar una respuesta global a los desequilibrios de cuenta corriente, siguió siendo uno de los principales problemas económicos del mundo en 2011. Sin duda, los desequilibrios mundiales se redujeron en tamaño en comparación con antes de la crisis, pero no desaparecieron. Ahora, algunos están volviendo a aumentar, junto con la desigualdad en muchos países. El vínculo no es casual.

A menudo se oyen llamados a la realización de un reajuste global mediante el cual los mercados emergentes con superávit de pagos -China es el país que se menciona con mayor frecuencia- estimularían la demanda interna, de modo que los países avanzados (el más grande es Estados Unidos) podrían reducir sus déficits y deuda pública con menos riesgo para la recuperación de sus economías. La demanda exterior neta que se crearía con una reducción de los superávits de la balanza de pagos en el extranjero compensaría en parte el debilitamiento de la demanda pública en EE.UU. y otros países con alto nivel de deuda, a medida que endurecen su política fiscal.

Sin embargo, la historia no debe centrarse solamente en los déficits de cuenta corriente en los países avanzados y los superávits en los países emergentes. Muchos mercados emergentes -como India, Sudáfrica, Brasil y Turquía- tienen en realidad déficits de cuenta corriente. También hay muchos países avanzados que exhiben un superávit de cuenta corriente: se ha hablado mucho del caso de Alemania desde el comienzo de la crisis de la eurozona, pero Japón, los Países Bajos, Noruega y Suecia se encuentran en la misma situación.

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