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La falsa promesa económica de la gobernanza global

CAMBRIDGE – La gobernanza global es el mantra de la élite moderna. El argumento es que el incremento de flujos transfronterizos de bienes, servicios, capital e información (derivado de la innovación tecnológica y la liberalización de los mercados) generó demasiada interconexión entre los países del mundo como para que cada uno de ellos por separado pueda resolver sus problemas económicos solo. Necesitamos reglas globales, acuerdos globales, instituciones globales.

Esta afirmación goza de tanta aceptación que cuestionarla puede parecer como sostener que el Sol gira alrededor de la Tierra. Pero lo que puede ser verdad en el caso de problemas realmente globales como el cambio climático o las pandemias no es aplicable a la mayor parte de los problemas económicos. Contra lo que oímos a menudo, la economía mundial no es un bien común global. La gobernanza global ayudará muy poco, y a veces ocasionará un perjuicio.

Lo que hace que, por ejemplo, el cambio climático sea un problema que demanda cooperación internacional es el hecho de que el planeta tiene un único sistema climático. Como da lo mismo dónde se emitan gases de efecto invernadero, imponer restricciones a las emisiones sólo en el nivel nacional generaría escaso o nulo beneficio al país que lo hiciera.

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