Martin Barraud/Getty Images

False Promesse Economiche della Governance Globale

CAMBRIDGE – La governance globale è il mantra delle elite della nostra epoca. Secondo il loro punto di vista, l’ondata di flussi transfrontalieri di beni, servizi, capitali ed informazioni prodotti da innovazione tecnologica e liberalizzazione di mercato ha reso i paesi in tutto il mondo troppo interconnessi, perché un singolo paese sia in grado di risolvere per conto proprio i problemi economici. Abbiamo bisogno di regole globali, accordi globali, istituzioni globali.

Questa posizione è oggi così ampiamente accettata che metterla in dubbio può avere lo stesso effetto che sostenere che il sole gira intorno alla terra. Eppure, ciò che può essere vero per problemi realmente globali come il cambiamento climatico o le pandemie non è vero quando si tratta della maggior parte delle questioni economiche. Contrariamente a quanto spesso si sente, l’economia mondiale non è un bene comune globale. La governance globale può produrre effetti positivi solo in modo limitato – e di tanto in tanto può generare danni.

Ciò che rende, per esempio, il cambiamento climatico un problema che richiede una cooperazione globale è il fatto che il clima del pianeta costituisce sistema unitario. I siti di emissione dei gas serra non costituiscono differenza significativa. Quindi le restrizioni nazionali sulle emissioni di anidride carbonica procurano all’interno del paese benefici scarsi, se non addirittura nulli.

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