Obama State visit Jim Watson/Getty Images

Quel est le rôle de la gouvernance mondiale ?

WASHINGTON, DC – La gouvernance globale peut-elle résoudre la plupart de nos problèmes économiques? Ou promet-elle trop souvent plus qu'elle ne peut offrir, détournant ainsi l'attention de réformes plus pratiques que les gouvernements nationaux devraient mettre en œuvre? Dans un commentaire récent, l’économiste de l'Université de Harvard Dani Rodrik penche pour la deuxième affirmation. A-t-il raison?

Bien sûr, les politiques nationales ont un effet plus direct – qu’il soit bon ou mauvais – sur les citoyens d'un pays. Cependant, nous ne pouvons pas ignorer les effets mondiaux de mauvaises politiques nationales. Les exemples les plus évidents relevés par Rodrik sont les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et les maladies infectieuses. Les habitants du « pays d'origine » en souffriront certainement, mais il en sera de même pour le reste d'entre nous.

« La mondialisation » a été un mot d’ordre depuis des décennies, et la nécessité d'une gouvernance mondiale a certes été exagérée au cours des dernières années, en particulier par les politiciens de centre gauche. Cela a conduit à des appels à de nouvelles alternatives , comme un « nationalisme responsable » ou une prise de décision « inter-gouvernementale » – par opposition à supranationale – dans l'Union européenne.

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