Clean energy in rural India BFID/Flickr

Las finanzas globales y el calentamiento financiero global

NUEVA DELHI/LONDRES – Desde 2008, cuando la crisis financiera global casi hundió la economía del planeta, la reforma financiera ha sido una de las grandes prioridades de las autoridades económicas. Sin embargo, a medida que los gobernantes pasan de solucionar los problemas del pasado a preparar el sistema financiero para el futuro, deben también dar respuesta a las nuevas amenazas a su estabilidad, sobre todo la relacionada con el cambio climático.

Por esta razón un número creciente de gobiernos, entidades reguladoras, organismos que establecen normas y actores del mercado están comenzando a incorporar reglas relacionadas con dar sostenibilidad al sistema financiero. En Brasil, el banco central considera la integración de factores ambientales y sociales a la gestión del riesgo como un modo de fortalecer la resiliencia. Y en países como Singapur y Sudáfrica, las compañías que cotizan en bolsa tienen la obligación de hacer públicos sus resultados ambientales y sociales, requisito que los inversionistas y reguladores consideran cada vez más esencial para un funcionamiento eficiente de los mercados financieros.

En el pasado, iniciativas como esta se podrían haber mirado como un nicho “verde” de carácter periférico, pero hoy se consideran centrales para el funcionamiento del sistema financiero. En Bangladesh, entre las medidas del banco central para dar apoyo al desarrollo económico se encuentra la refinanciación de bajo coste para bancos que den préstamos a proyectos que cumplan metas en los ámbitos de las fuentes de energía renovables, la eficiencia energética o la gestión de residuos. En el Reino Unido, hoy el Banco de Inglaterra está en el proceso de evaluar las implicancias del cambio climático para el sector de los seguros como parte de su mandato básico de supervisar la seguridad y solidez de las instituciones financieras.

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