Clean energy in rural India BFID/Flickr

Keuangan Global dan Pemanasan Global

NEW DELHI/LONDON – Sejak tahun 2008 ketika krisis keuangan global hampir menghancurkan ekonomi dunia, reformasi keuangan menjadi salah satu agenda utama bagi pembuat kebijakan. Namun seiring dengan pergeseran upaya yang awalnya dilakukan para pemimpin untuk memperbaiki permasalahan di masa lalu, hingga kini memposisikan sistem keuangan untuk masa mendatang, mereka harus bergulat dengan adanya ancaman baru terhadap stabilitas, khususnya ancaman-ancaman yang timbul dari perubahan iklim.

Kondisi ini menjadi alasan mengapa sejumlah besar pemerintah, regulator, pembuat standar dan pelaku pasar mulai memasukkan aturan-aturan mengenai keberlanjutan ke dalam sistem keuangan. Di Brasil, bank sentral menganggap integrasi faktor-faktor lingkungan hidup dan sosial ke dalam manajemen risiko sebagai cara memperkuat ketahanan. Di negara-negara seperti Singapura dan Afrika Selatan, perusahaan yang terdaftar di bursa efek wajib mengungkapkan kinerja lingkungan hidup dan sosial, suatu persyaratan yang semakin dipandang perlu oleh investor dan regulator untuk menjalankan pasar keuangan yang efisien.

Prakarsa semacam ini barangkali dulu dinilai sebagai ceruk periferal “hijau”. Kini, prakarsa ini dianggap sebagai inti dari penerapan sistem keuangan. Di Bangladesh, upaya bank sentral untuk menunjang pembangunan ekonomi meliputi refinancing yang rendah biaya bagi bank yang memberikan pinjaman kepada proyek-proyek demi memenuhi tujuan efisiensi energi, energi terbarukan, atau pengelolaan limbah. Di United Kingdom, saat ini Bank of England tengah mempelajari dampak perubahan iklim terhadap sektor asuransi sebagai bagian dari wewenang utamanya untuk mengawasi ketahanan dan kelayakan lembaga keuangan.

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