尝试一切手段

伯克利——2008年底,当我意识到全球经济距离曾诱发与大萧条同样危险的崩溃越来越近时,我在震惊之余同时又充满希望。毕竟,我们曾有过类似的经历。而且我们也曾找到过减轻损失的方法;不幸的是,决策者却将其束之高阁。

大萧条开始三年半时间内,美国总统赫伯特·胡佛的首要任务是平衡预算,并竭力恢复企业信心(但他的努力最终没有成功)。1933年,新当选的美国总统富兰克林·罗斯福改变了路线,采取一种简单而激进的策略:尽一切可能刺激需求、增加产量或降低失业率——之后继续重复行之有效的方法。

罗斯福放弃试图平衡预算,增加货币供应并启动赤字开支。他让美国脱离金本位,允许政府直接雇佣工人,并为有可能失去家园的人提供贷款担保。他推动石油行业联盟化,并为打破垄断引入了积极的反垄断措施。

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