兑现气候承诺

渥太华——今年将是有记录以来最温暖的一年。过去十年来,温室气体的排放速度已经加快,过去一年大气中二氧化碳浓度的增速比20世纪90年代高出15%,达到近三十年来的顶点。正像政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)最新报告所强调的那样,气候危机加剧和国际谈判停滞之间的脱节也达到历史顶点。

毋庸讳言,明年将在巴黎举行的 联合国气候变化大会极为重要,有效期到2050年的削减全球温室气体排放战略将在此次峰会上成形。但本次峰会不太可能达成迫切需要的全球协议,除非各国领导人将工作重点从单纯的减排拓展到碳排放定价。

越来越多专家——包括国际货币基金组织、经合组织和世界银行的专家——认可没有高效的碳定价机制气候计划就不可能成功。政府间气候变化专门委员会认定如果不迅速建立统一的全球碳定价机制,阻止全球变暖超过工业化前2ºC的目标就几乎不可能完成——而气候变化一旦越过这道门槛,最具破坏性的影响将会不可避免地发生。

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