Pound Euro Banking Ian Waldie/Getty Images

Die Bedrohung der globalen Bankenstandards

LONDON – Die Finanzkrise des Jahres 2008 verlieh den internationalen Standardsetzungsgremien enormen Auftrieb. Plötzlich stand der Basler Ausschuss (der die Standards für die internationale Bankenaufsicht vorgibt) im Mittelpunkt der Finanznachrichten. Im Rahmen festlicher Abendessen in Manhattan und Kensington wurden Basel II und das mit prozyklischen Kapitalanforderungen verbundene Ungemach erörtert. Regierungen, die internationaler Einmischung bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt argwöhnisch gegenüber gestanden hatten, traten eifrig für strengere globale Regeln ein, um zu verhindern, dass Bankenkrisen auf andere Länder übergriffen und sie ähnlich einem Ausbruch der asiatischen Grippe infizierten.

Die konkreten Folgen dieses Enthusiasmus bestanden in der Schaffung des Finanzstabilitätsrates (FSB), der anlässlich des G-20-Gipfels im April 2009 in London aus der Asche des Forums für Finanzstabilität erstand sowie in der Einbeziehung von Vertretern aller G-20 Mitglieder in die Reihen der wichtigsten Regelersteller in Basel und anderswo. Die Dominanz der G-7 wich der Hoffnung, dass eine weiter gefasste Mitgliedschaft zu umfassenderer Zustimmung und stärkerem politischen Rückhalt für die Erhöhung des Kapitals im Bankensystem sorgen würde. 

Bis zu einem gewissen Grad haben alle diese Veränderungen auch funktioniert. So wurden beispielsweise aufgrund des Regulierungswerks Basel III die Kapitalanforderungen  an einzelne Banken mehr als verdoppelt und die Qualität dieses Kapitals verbessert. Dadurch erscheint das System etwas sicherer. Doch nun gibt es gefährliche Anzeichen, dass ein Bekenntnis zu strengeren weltweiten Standards – ja überhaupt zu gemeinsamen Standards – womöglich im Schwinden begriffen ist.

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