Pound Euro Banking Ian Waldie/Getty Images

Dreiging voor mondiale bankstandaarden

LONDEN – De financiële crisis van 2008 betekende een grote steun in de rug van de opstellers van mondiale standaarden. Opeens beheerste het Bazels Comité (dat de standaarden voor internationale bankensupervisie zet) de krantenkoppen van het financiële nieuws. Etentjes in Manhattan en Kensington werden genoten onder het bespreken van de details van het Bazel II-akkoord en de gevaren van procyclische kapitaalvereisten. Overheden die eerder op hun hoede waren voor internationale inmenging waren opeens gretig voorstander van strengere mondiale regulering om te voorkomen dat bankencrises over grenzen heen zouden vloeien en anderen zouden besmetten, zoals bij de Aziatische bankencrisis van de jaren negentig.

De concrete consequenties van dit enthousiasme waren de oprichting van de Raad voor Financiële Stabiliteit (FSB), geboren uit de as van het Forum voor Financiële Stabiliteit op de G20-top in Londen in april 2009, en vertegenwoordiging van alle G20-leden onder de belangrijkste regulatoren in Bazel en elders. De eerdere dominantie van de G7 leidde tot de hoop dat een breder lidmaatschap een groter engagement tot gevolg zou hebben, zowel als een bredere politieke steun voor hogere kapitaalvereisten voor het bankensysteem.

Al deze veranderingen hebben gewerkt, maar tot op zeker niveau. De Bazel III regelgeving bijvoorbeeld heeft de hoeveelheid kapitaal die een individuele bank in kas moet hebben verdubbeld, en tegelijk de kwaliteit van dat kapitaal vergroot. Het systeem ziet er als resultaat hiervan iets veiliger uit. Maar nu zijn er verontrustende tekenen dat het engagement aan strengere mondiale standaarden – en zelfs aan welke algemene standaarden dan ook – op zijn retour is.

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