Donald Trump Jewel Samad/Getty Images

我们想要强力领导人吗?

坎布里奇—一股转向更大极权的趋势似乎正在全世界蔓延。普京成功地利用民族主义收紧了他对俄罗斯的控制,并且似乎还很受民众支持。习近平被认为是自毛泽东以来最强力的中国领导人,主持着越来越多的关键决策委员会。土耳其总统埃尔多安最近把总理换成了更适合他集中行政权力的人。更有一些评论家担心,如果唐纳德·特朗普赢得11月美国总统大选,有可能成为“美国墨索里尼”。

权力的滥用和人类历史一样久远。圣经告诉我们,大卫击败歌利亚并在随后成为过国王勾引了拔士芭,并故意把她的丈夫派上战场送死。领导力包括权力的使用,而阿克顿勋爵有一句名言,权力产生腐败。但权力乃是让人们按照你的意图行事的能力,没有权力,领导人无从领导。

哈佛大学心理学家大卫·麦克柯兰德(David C. McClelland)曾经用动机把人分为三类。最关注把事情做得更好的人有“成就需求”。最注重和他人的友好关系的人有“结盟需求”。最关注影响他人的人有“权力需求”。

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