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全球老龄化和财政偿债能力

坎布里奇—各国政府的退休人员支持计划都陷入了麻烦,原因是寿命预期越来越长和退休人员与纳税人数量之比越来越高。随着不利的人口趋势不断地增加养老金和医疗资金的财政负担,这个问题将在未来多年中继续恶化。

美国的这个问题与众不同,因为美国的社保资金的“信托基金”体系将在资金耗尽后形成一场危机。尽管到了那时,美国的选择将与其他政府所面临的选择有所不同,但避免美国危机的政策对于面临人口老龄化的国家来说也十分重要。

先来看看美国的体系如何运行:根据法律,工资税被全部专门用来为退休福利提供资金。雇主和雇员各自支付6.2%的现金收入,个人最高现金收入基数为128,000美元,随平均工资水平每年上涨。这些税收资金被存入社会保险信托基金(Social Security Trust Fund),投资于政府债券。

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