Dar hasta curar

En mi nuevo libro The End of Poverty (“El fin de la pobreza”) muestro cómo se puede acabar con la pobreza extrema en 2025, pero sólo si el mundo rico cumple hasta el final su promesa de ayudar a los países más pobres. Para prosperar y para fomentar la inversión del sector privado necesaria para lograr el crecimiento a largo plazo, una economía necesita unos sistemas educativo y sanitario que funcionen, inversiones en nutrientes del suelo y gestión del agua e infraestructuras básicas, como, por ejemplo, la electricidad y el transporte motorizado. Sin embargo, los países más pobres, incluso los bien gobernados, carecen de recursos para financiar esas inversiones.

La falta de asistencia exterior suficiente es una de las mayores desgracias en nuestro planeta y los Estados Unidos han sido el país más rezagado al respecto. Es urgente que los EE.UU. tomen conciencia de las realidades mundiales y cumplan hasta el final sus compromisos.

La promesa más famosa de los países ricos ha sido la de prestar a los países pobres una ayuda equivalente al menos al 0,7 de su PNB. Dicho compromiso se remonta a 1961, hace 44 años, cuando la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas aprobó el objetivo de que la asistencia extranjera aumentara en gran medida “a fin de llegar lo antes posible al uno por ciento de las rentas nacionales combinadas de los países económicamente avanzados”. En aquella época, la asistencia exterior ascendía al 0,5 por ciento, aproximadamente, de la renta de los países ricos.

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