给运转良好的国家应有的赞扬

马德里—柏林墙倒塌后,人们一度认为民主和市场经济的胜利是不可阻挡的——美国政治哲学家福山(Francis Fukuyama)非常著名地将称之为“历史的终结”——但很快,人们发现,这纯属一种幻想。然而,中国在意识形态上的长袖善舞——既坚持一党执政,又采用资本主义信条——让历史解读家们将注意力转向了经济:不是所有人都有自由选择自己的政府,但资本主义繁荣可以支配全世界。

然而,如今,经济动荡困扰的欧洲,西方中产阶级的衰落以及全世界不断恶化的不平等性问题正在破坏资本主义夺取全面胜利的基础。人们提出了诸多尖锐的问题:我们所熟知的资本主义注定要失败吗?市场不再能够制造繁荣了吗?中国的国家资本主义大旗将取而代之吗?

对这些问题的普遍而深刻反思越来越让人们感到,资本主义的成功只是凭借着宏观经济政策和经济指标。它取决于良好的治理和法治精神——换句话说,即运转良好的国家。西方在与共产主义作斗争时忽视了这一点的基础重要性。

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