Des politiques d’envergure pour la protection de l’eau

NEW YORK – Depuis l’adoption en l’an 2000 des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD) des Nations Unies, la communauté internationale a concentré, à juste titre, ses efforts sur l’approvisionnement de base en eau potable et en services d’assainissement. De 1990 à 2010, plus de deux milliards de personnes ont pu accéder à de meilleures sources d’eau potable. Comme les Nations Unies se préparent à adopter lesdits Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) comme successeurs des OMD après 2015, les enjeux stratégiques des grandes infrastructures hydrauliques doivent être mis au premier plan.

La pensée traditionnelle veut qu’un meilleur accès à l’eau dépende du forage de puits, de l’adoption des solutions fondées sur les besoins de la communauté et aussi de l’orientation des programmes d’aide qui vise à améliorer le sort des masses. Mais ces mesures importantes ne prennent qu’une petite part dans une stratégie beaucoup plus ambitieuse, qui exige cependant beaucoup plus de capitaux.

Selon un rapport récent de l’UNICEF et de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé sur leur programme conjoint de recensement des sources d’eau potable et des installations d’assainissement, plus de 1,2 milliard des gens a pu accéder à de l’eau potable de 1990 à 2008. La plupart l’ont obtenu par une entrée d’eau dans leur habitation. Ce chiffre éclipse l’impact des sources de plus petite échelle, allant des puits creusés à la collecte des eaux de pluie, qui selon beaucoup de gens ont grandement contribué à régler les problèmes.

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