Débloquer la situation en Amérique Latine

L'un des plus grands casse-tête de l'économie mondiale concerne sans aucun doute les médiocres performances de l'Amérique Latine. Depuis le début des années 1980, l'Amérique Latine s'est retrouvée bloquée, avec des revenus par habitant croissant lentement (si revenus il y avait) dans la majorité de la région et avec une grande crise à répétition. De nombreuses politiques ont été tentées, tout particulièrement la libéralisation des échanges, la privatisation des entreprises publiques inefficaces et les réformes budgétaires. Cependant, quelque chose empêche l'Amérique Latine de progresser.

Le manque de croissance vigoureuse est d'autant plus déconcertant à la lumière des nombreux avantages et réussites sociales de l'Amérique Latine. Les ressources naturelles sont abondantes et les terres fertiles foisonnent. Les conditions sanitaires sont relativement acceptables et tous les pays d'Amérique Latine ont fait des progrès contre l'illettrisme, la majorité obtenant au minimum 90 % d'alphabétisation des adultes.

En outre, les taux de fertilité ont nettement chuté, pour atteindre un taux auquel les populations de nombreux pays se stabiliseront probablement dans les décennies à venir. La condition des femmes s'est améliorée et les filles bénéficient de l'égalité d'accès à l'éducation, avec des taux d'inscription plus élevés que les garçons dans de nombreux pays. L'Amérique Latine est sans doute connue pour sa culture " macho ", mais le taux de femmes dans la population active ne cesse de croître et elles occupent de plus en plus des positions politiques et sociales de premier plan.

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