Germany Deutches Museum Munich m.salo/Flickr

Una oportunidad de oro para Alemania

BERLÍN – Parece que nada puede detener a la economía alemana. Se espera que el crecimiento crezca más del 2% este año y que los salarios aumenten 3% y se prevé que el superávit en cuenta corriente alcance un impresionante 8.4% del PIB. A lo largo de la última década, el desempleo se ha reducido a la mitad y ahora está a un nivel sin precedentes históricos. Los exportadores alemanes siguen siendo muy innovadores y competitivos. Además, el gobierno tiene un superávit presupuestal considerable. Mientras el resto de Europa sigue atrapada en la crisis y la falta de confianza, el futuro de Alemania parece alentador y seguro. Pero las apariencias pueden engañar.

De hecho, los datos macroeconómicos actuales solo reflejan parte de la situación. Desde que se estableció el euro en 1999, el crecimiento de la productividad de Alemania no ha sido superior al de la media de los países europeos, los salarios reales han disminuido para la mitad de la fuerza laboral y el crecimiento anual del PIB ha sido en promedio de apenas 1.2%.

Una razón clave de este desempeño mediocre es la tasa de inversión notoriamente reducida de Alemania, que está entre las más bajas de la OCDE. El resultado es una infraestructura que se está deteriorando y que incluye caminos, puentes y escuelas. Esto, junto con un ambiente regulatorio y empresarial inadecuado ha generado preocupación entre las compañías. Desde 1999, las multinacionales alemanas más grandes han duplicado el número de sus empleados en el extranjero y reducido los empleos en el país.

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