John Overmyer

La fantasía solar de Alemania

COPENHAGUE – Uno de los mayores experimentos de política pública en materia de energía verde del mundo está llegando a un amargo final en Alemania, con importantes enseñanzas para las autoridades de otros países.

En otro tiempo, Alemania se enorgullecía de ser la “adalid del mundo fotovoltaico”, al repartir subvenciones generosas –por un importe total de más de 130.000 millones de dólares, según las investigaciones de la alemana Universidad del Ruhr– a los ciudadanos para que invirtieran en la energía solar, pero ahora el Gobierno alemán ha prometido recortar las subvenciones antes de lo previsto y abandonar progresivamente ese apoyo a lo largo de los cinco próximos años. ¿Qué ha fallado?

Subvencionar una tecnología verde ineficiente plantea un problema fundamental: sólo es asequible, si se hace en pequeñas cantidades simbólicas. El año pasado, los alemanes instalaron, gracias a las generosas subvenciones estatales, 7,5 gigavatios de capacidad fotovoltaica (FV), más del doble de lo que el Gobierno había considerado “aceptable”. Se calcula que tan sólo ese aumento provocará una subida de 260 euros en la factura eléctrica anual de los consumidores.

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