John Overmyer

Der deutsche Sonnenschein-Tagtraum

KOPENHAGEN – In Deutschland nähert sich eines der größten staatlich unterstützten Experimente im Bereich grüner Energie seinem bitteren Ende und politische Entscheidungsträger anderswo können daraus wichtige Lehren ziehen.

Einst rühmte sich Deutschland, „Photovoltaik-Weltmeister“ zu sein. Man verteilte generöse Subventionen – im Ausmaß von insgesamt über 100 Milliarden Euro laut Angaben der Ruhr-Universität – an die Bürger, um in die Solarenergie zu investieren. Nun allerdings verspricht die deutsche Regierung, die Förderungen früher als geplant zu kürzen und die Unterstützung über die nächsten fünf Jahre auslaufen zu lassen. Was ist da schief gelaufen?

Bei der Subventionierung ineffizienter grüner Technologie gibt es ein grundlegendes Problem: finanziell erschwinglich ist sie nur, wenn diese Förderung in geringen, eher symbolischen Summen erfolgt. Mit den großzügigen staatlichen Förderungen errichteten die Deutschen im vorigen Jahr 7,5 Gigawatt an photovoltaischer Kapazität. Das ist doppelt so viel wie die Regierung für „akzeptabel“ gehalten hatte. Man schätzt, dass alleine diese Kapazitätserhöhung zu einem Anstieg der jährlichen Stromrechnung für den deutschen Durchschnittsverbraucher um 200 Euro führen wird. 

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