Le Boom à l'exportation pathologique de l'Allemagne

L'Allemagne est le bazar industriel du monde. Aucun autre pays ne peut offrir à ses clients internationaux une telle diversité de produits industriels. Elle possède 450 champions du monde cachés pour les produits de niche et abrite 15 des 20 plus grosses foires professionnelles du monde. C'est aussi le premier exportateur mondial de biens marchands et le second plus gros exportateur de biens et services.

Pourtant, l'Allemagne se transforme peu à peu en une économie de bazar dans un sens différent, car de nos jours elle se spécialise dans l'emballage et la vente de ses produits, tout en délocalisant une part grandissante de sa fabrication à forte valeur ajoutée vers des pays où les salaires sont faibles. Autrement dit, le rôle de l'Allemagne dans l'économie mondiale se transforme peu à peu d'un rôle de producteur à un rôle de marchand. De ce fait, ses exportations comprennent une part grandissante de biens et services importés tandis que la part de la valeur ajoutée intérieure par unité de production exportée baisse rapidement.

Cela ne signifie pas pour autant que la part des exportations de produits fabriqués en Allemagne baisse en termes absolus. Cela veut simplement dire que le volume total des exportations allemandes a augmenté plus rapidement que le total de la valeur ajoutée allemande dans ces exportations.

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