Le déficit européen de l’Allemagne

BERLIN – L’Allemagne a été au cour de l’intégration européenne. Ses dirigeants avaient coutume de dire que l’Allemagne n’avait pas de politique étrangère indépendante, seulement une politique européenne. Après la chute du mur de Berlin, ils se rendirent compte que la réunification allemande n’était possible que dans le contexte d’une Europe unie, et ils étaient disposés à faire certains sacrifices pour obtenir l’aval de l’Europe. Les Allemands contribueraient un peu plus et recevraient un peu moins que les autres pays afin de faciliter un accord.

Cette époque est révolue. L’euro est en crise et l’Allemagne en est le principal protagoniste. Les Allemands ne se sentent plus aussi riche et ils ne veulent plus continuer à banquer pour le reste de l’Europe. Ce changement d’attitude est compréhensible mais il a mis un frein au processus d’intégration européenne.

L’euro était une monnaie incomplète dans sa conception même dès son lancement. Le Traité de Maastricht a mis en place une union monétaire sans union politique – une banque centrale mais pas de trésorerie. Et en terme de crédit souverain, chaque état membre de la zone euro ne devait compter que sur soi.

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