Angela Merkel NurPhoto/ Getty Images

L’Europe laissera-t-elle le leadership à l’Allemagne ?

BERLIN – Le vote sur le Brexit du Royaume-Uni, la défaite du référendum du Premier ministre italien Matteo Renzi et la démission qui a suivi, ainsi que l'élection de Donald Trump en tant que président des États-Unis ont créé un vide de pouvoir en Occident et en Europe. A une époque où l'Europe a besoin de prendre des décisions collectives importantes sur les plans économique et de politique étrangère, ce sont avant tout des questions nationales qui préoccupent les plus grands États membres de l'Union européenne comme la France, le Royaume-Uni, l’Espagne et l’Italie. Par conséquent, il y a une pression croissante sur la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel et son gouvernement pour qu’ils assument de plus en plus un rôle de leadership de l’Europe.

Mais, bien que l'Allemagne désire faire preuve de leadership, elle a besoin de partenaires européens qui soient prêts à s’engager et à faire des compromis. Les critiques de l'Allemagne ont raison de dire qu’elle pourrait être plus ouverte aux propositions politiques d'autres Etats membres, mais la plupart des reproches adressés à l'Allemagne ont été injustes – et souvent égoïstes.

Par exemple, le gouvernement allemand a été accusé de fuir la solidarité européenne en réponse à la crise financière de 2008. Pourtant, bien que les mesures allemandes soient parfois arrivées trop tard, ou aient parfois été mal conçues – comme sa proposition d’un « Grexit temporaire » – le gouvernement de l'Allemagne a également accepté de nombreux programmes de sauvetage, la création du Mécanisme européen de stabilité et une union bancaire de l'UE. De plus, l'Allemagne a supporté le plus lourd fardeau financier.

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